茶飢素(體歸靈)

  中興大學生物科技學研究所舉辦台灣四季春烏龍茶產業升級發表會,邀請包括松原製茶廠、甲級製茶廠、名香茶行、鈺統食品及嘉品生物科技等台灣茶製程技術產學聯盟成員,展示上述研發成果。四季春茶樹在台灣種植很廣,且產量很大的茶樹品種,而四季春茶葉所製成的烏龍茶,因香氣十足,價格便宜更是國內罐裝茶與手搖茶的主要茶品。

  曾志正教授團隊4月發表在《食物生化期刊》(Journal of Food Biochemistry)的研究成果指出,四季春茶葉中,含有「茶飢素」(teaghrelin)成分,飲用約5至10克的四季春烏龍茶所泡出的茶湯,差不多是國人泡一壺茶的用量,即可達到功效,與飲茶者產生飢餓感的經驗相符。試驗證實能可誘導腦部釋放飢餓訊號,提高食慾,也能刺激生長激素分泌。

中興大學校長薛富盛(右)24日和該校生物科技學研究所曾志正教授(左)共同發表「四季春」茶葉中,含有「茶飢素」(teaghrelin)成分。

  而飢餓感的生物化學機制很複雜,受身體各處分泌的荷爾蒙所掌管,其中主要由兩種功能相反的荷爾蒙控制。一個是飢餓素(ghrelin),由胃黏膜中的細胞製造,當腸胃沒有食物時,就會開始分泌而產生飢餓感;當吃很飽時,則會促進胃酸分泌來消化食物。

飢餓素(ghrelin)

  另一個瘦體素(leptin)則是由脂肪細胞製造,具有抑制食慾、增加能量消耗、抑制脂肪合成等作用。藉由它在血液中的濃度變化,能使大腦知道此時身體上的脂肪存量,藉以控制食慾及新陳代謝的速率。

瘦體素(leptin)

  戴夫.亞斯普雷在《防彈飲食》書中提及,當你感到強烈的飢餓感,覺得我現在非吃東西不可時,這就代表你稍早吃的東西並沒有真的滿足你,因為那些食物無法製造瘦素或抑制飢餓素的產生。控制飲食的目的不該是忽略飢餓感,而是要讓控制飢餓感的荷爾蒙恢復平衡。透過防彈飲食法,吃下含有高品質脂肪的食物和足夠的熱量,就不會再受飢餓感的困擾,同時還能比以往更快速地輕鬆減重。

  飢餓素(ghrelin)是人體中最主要傳遞飢餓訊息的荷爾蒙訊號分子,同時也直接管控生長激素分泌,並調控體內代謝、能量平衡、記憶力、心血管與腸胃蠕動功能等重要生理功能。青心烏龍則是製作這類茶的優良樹種,為台灣現有茶樹栽種面積最廣的品種。

  青心烏龍除了具有迷人的特有香氣與喉韻外,還能夠使飲用者明顯感受到飢餓感與腸胃蠕動。飢餓感主要由中樞神經系統中的下視丘來調控,而生長激素分泌量不足被證實與人們老化生理現象有密不可分的關係。本實驗室投入十餘年時間,解開喝青心烏龍茶能產生飢餓感並促進腸胃蠕動的成份,將其命名為體歸靈或稱為茶飢素(teaghrelin)。

  體歸靈藉由仿效飢餓素的誘導分子機制,結合飢餓素接受器來引發飢餓感、腸胃排空、刺激生長激素分泌等生理功效。因此,我們推測體歸靈具有抗老化的養生保健功效,也具有潛力發展為治療生長激素相關疾病的天然藥物。

飢餓感的產生與調控

飢餓感的產生與調控

  肚子餓的感覺自然會促使人去找尋食物來吃,這是一種與生俱來的本能,不需要任何的教導,就連新生兒只要感受到飢餓都會本能地吸吮母乳。這個求生本能的覓食行為,提供人體各種活動所需的能量並使身體器官的機能得以維繫。

  許多因素會促使我們有飢餓的感覺,這些因素可分為兩大類:生理因素與心理因素。生理因素方面,會因為腸胃道的排空導致,或血液中營養素(葡萄糖、胺基酸和脂肪酸)含量下降(至生理水平值以下)而引發。

  心理因素方面,會因為感覺器官(視覺、味覺、嗅覺)、心理情緒、認知、文化風俗或社會觀感而影響人們對於食物的取用,然而這大多是因為後天學習的影響,才使得人們對於特定美食產生飢餓感(10)。無論是生理因素或是心理因素,彼此間都會相互影響,交互作用引發人們進行攝食的行為。

  飢餓感主要由中樞神經系統中的下視丘(hypothalamus)來調控,在下視丘外側區存在著攝食中樞,而下視丘的腹內側核存在著飽食中樞。在動物實驗中觀測到,當對下視丘外側區進行刺激時會導致食物攝入量的增加而過度進食;若將此區域進行毀損破壞則會導致動物長期不能自發性的進食。  

  相反的,若在動物體刺激下視丘腹內側核會導致動物引起飽足感、拒食;將此區毀損則會導致動物會貪婪的進食無法飽足,而導致肥胖的產生。綜合以上,下視丘的外側區與腹內側核相互調節控制人體攝食行為(誘發飢餓感或飽足感),也負責恆定體內的能量平衡以維持身體機能。

茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素

茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素  茶飢素

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One Two Buckle My Shoes
One, two, buckle my shoe
Three, four, Shut the door
Five, six, Seven, eight,
Nine, ten, Let’s go play

Goodbye to You
Goodbye to you, goodbye to you
Goodbye my dear friend
I’ll see you again

Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf
Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf
Big bad wolf
Big bad wolf
Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf
Tra la la la la

How Much is that Doggie?
How much is that doggie in the window? *(arf! Arf!)*
The one with the waggley tail
How much is that doggie in the window? *(arf! Arf!)*
I do hope that doggie’s for sale

Two Little Eyes
Two little eyes that open and close
two little ears and one little nose
Two tittle checks and one little chin
two little lips with the teeth close in

ABC’s Song
A B C D E F G
H I J K L M N O P
Q R S and T U V
W and X Y Z
Happy, happy, shall we be
When we learn our ABC’s

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